Hindi Grammar (Vyakaran)
Hindi Grammar Tree is presented below in a simple form. Just read it to find similarity with English/your native language. Do not worry if you're unable to understand it right now. You can learn it subsequently along with your Hindi tutorial lessons.
Sangya (Noun In Hindi Grammar)
A. TypesThese are of five types (similar to those in English language)--
- Vyakti vachak sangya (Proper Noun) - e.g. Delhi, Gandhi, Ramayan, Geetanjali, Himalaya, Tajmahal
- Jati vachak sangya (Common Noun) - e.g. more(peacock), pustak(book), mahila(lady), baalak(boy), baalika(girl)
- Bhav vachak sangya (Abstract Noun) - e.g. bachpan(childhood), satya(truth), sundarata(beauty), namrata(politeness)
- Samudaay vachak sangya (Collective Noun) - e.g. sena(armed forces), sabha(assembly), mandali(group)
- Dravya vachak sangya (Material Noun) - e.g. sona(gold), loha(iron), paani(water)
B. Sangya-Vikar (Declension of Nouns)Due to three reasons-- (i) Ling, (ii) Vachan, (iii) Karak
Ling (Gender) - In Hindi, there are only two types. These are
- Pull-ling (Masculine)
- Stri-ling (Feminine).
Vachan (Number) - These are of two types.
- Ek-vachan (Singular Number)
- Bahu-vachan (Plural Number)
Karak (Case) - These are of eight types.
- Karta (Nominative) - represented by Hindi word "ne"
- Karm (Objective, Accusative) - "ko"
- Karan (Instruments) - "se, ke dwara"
- Sampradan (Dative) - "ko, ke liye"
- Apadan (Ablative) - "se"
- Sambandh (Genetive, Possessive) - "ka, ki, ke"
- Adhikaran (Locative) - "me, par"
- Sambodhan (Vocative) - "Hey!, Arrey!"
Sarvnaam (Pronoun In Hindi Grammar)
Pronouns in Hindi language are of five types:
- Purush vachak sarvnaam (Personal pronoun) - These are of three kind
- Uttam Purush (First Person) e.g. mae (I), hum(we), mera (my), humara (our)
- Madhyam Purush (Second Person) e.g. tum(you), tera(your)
- Anya Purush (Third person) e.g. vah (he), uska (his)
- Nischay vachak sarvnaam (Demonstrative pronoun) - Point to a definite person or object. e.g. yeh (this), veh (that), ye(these), ve (those)
- Anischay vachak sarvnaam (Indefinite pronoun) - Do not point to a definite person or object. e.g. koi (someone), kuchh (something)
- Sambandh vachak sarvnaam (Relative pronoun) - Relate one word to another. e.g. jo (who), jiski (whose), jaisa (like)
- Prashna vachak sarvnaam (Interrogative pronoun) - Used for interrogation. e.g. kaun (who), kya (what), kisko (whom)
B. Roop (Variations)
Similar to declension of nouns, a pronoun also has two Vachan; and eight Karak (case).
Visheshan (Adjective In Hindi Grammar)
These are of four types. The grammar tree is given below.
|Gun Vachak (Quality)||Sankhya Vachak (Numeral)||Pariman Vachak (Quantity)||Sanket Vachak (Demon strative)|
2. Dosh (bad quality)
3. Rang (color)
4. Kal (tense)
5. Disha (direction)
6. Aakar (shape)
7. Dasha (condition)
8. Sthan (place)
visheshan (definite) - of four types
|Points towards noun objects.|
B. Tulna (Degree of Comparison)
There are three stages of comparison in Hindi Visheshan.
- Mula vastha (Positive degree)
- Uttara vastha (Comparative degree)
- Uttama vastha (Superlative degree)
Kriya (Verb In Hindi Grammar)
A. Kinds of Verbs
- Sakarmak Kriya (Transitive Verb) - These cause direct effect on
another person/object. These are of two types-
- Preranarthak Kriya (Causative Verb)
- Dwikarmak Kriya (Verbs with two objects)
- Akarmak Kriya (Intransitive Verb) - Have no effect on others.
B. Kaal (Tense)
|Bhoot Kal (Past tense) -6 Types||Vartman Kal(Present tense) -3 Types||Bhavishya kal (Future tense) -2 Types|
|1. Samanya Bhoot(Past
2. Aasann Bhoot(Past Imminent)
3. Apurn Bhoot(Past Continuous)
4. Purna Bhoot(Past Perfect)
5. Sandigdh Bhoot(Past Doubtful)
6. Hetuhetumad Bhoot(Past Conditional)
|1. Samanya Vartman
2. Apurn Vartman(Present Continuous)
3. Sandigdh Vartman (Present Doubtful)
|1. Samanya Bhavishya
2. Sambhabya Bhavishya (Future Conditional or Doubtful)
C. Vachya (Voice)
These are of three types -
- Kartri Vachya (Active Voice)
- Karm Vachya (Passive Voice)
- Bhav Vachya (Impersonal Voice)
Kriya Visheshan (Adverb In Hindi Grammar)
These are of four types -
- Kaal Vachak (Time) - e.g. abhi(now), tabhi(then), sada(always), pratidin(daily), Aaj(today), phir(again), pahle(previous)
- Sthan Vachak (Place) - e.g. yeha(here), veha(there), kenha(where), kidhar(which place), sab jagah(every-where), bahar(outside)
- Reet Vachak (Manner) - e.g. dhire(slow), tej(fast), shayad(perhaps), avashya(sure, definite), achanak(suddenly), theek(right)
- Pariman Vachak (Quantity) - e.g. kafee(enough), bahut(many), paryapt(sufficient), kuchh(few), adhik(more), kum(less)
Sambandh-bodhak (Preposition In Hindi Grammar)
These words relate noun/pronoun to other words in a sentence. Some examples are:
- Tom ke sar par topi hai. (Tom has hat on his head)
- Tom ke peechhe John hai. (John is behind Tom)
- Lily ke samne kutta hai. (Dog is in front of Lily)
- Lily ke age kutta hai. (Dog is before Lily)
Underlined words are sambandh-bodhak or preposition Hindi words.
Sammuchay-bodhak (Conjunction In Hindi Grammar)
These are used to join words, phrase or sentences. Their types and some examples are given below:
- Yojak (Additive) such as aur, tatha, evam
e.g. Badal aye aur versa hone lagi. (Clouds came and it started raining)
- Vikalp-soochak (Shows Alternative) such as ya, athava,
ya-ya, na to, na ki
e.g. Versa hogi athava aandhi ayegi. (Either it will rain or there will be a storm)
- Vibhajak (Dis-joint) such as parantu, kintu, magar, lekin,
e.g. Mae uske ghar gaya parntu vah nahi mila. (I went to his house but he did not meet)
- Parinaam-soochak (Shows Result)
e.g. Maen mehnat kiya isliye mae safal hua. (I worked hard hence I became successful)
- Karan-soochak (Shows Reason)
e.g. mae nahi sounga kyonki yeha par machhar hai. (I will not sleep because there are mosquitoes here.)
- Uddeshya-soochak (Shows motive)
e.g. Tej chalo taki hum station theek samay par pahoonch jaye. (Walk fast so that we reach station in time)
Vismayaadi-bodhak (Interjection In Hindi Grammar)
Some words that show various moods are:
|Hersh (Happiness)||Ahaa!, Aahaa!, Wah!, Wah-wah!|
|Shok (Sadness)||Haay!, Aah!, Oh!, Uff!, Afsos!|
|Vismay (Surprise)||Arre!, Kya!, Sach!, Baap Re!, Hain!|
|Krodh (Anger)||Hut!, Chal!, Dur Ho!, Abe!, Kyon!|
|Tirskaar (Condemn)||Chhih!, Dhikkaar!, Dhat!|
|Vedana (Pain)||Haay Re!, Baap Re!, Haay Mar Gaya!|
|Prashansa (Praise)||Waah!, Dhanya!, Khoob!, BahutAchchhe!|
|Sweekriti (Consent)||Achcha!, Theek!, Bahut Achchha!|
English equivalents shown here on this Hindi grammar page are only to convey meaning of words written in Hindi. They may not be exact translation.